Low level laser therapy (LLLT) is used by physiotherapists to treat various musculoskeletal conditions. It is a non-invasive light source treatment that emits no sound or vibration and very little to no heat. LLLT is believed to affect the function of connective tissue cells (fibroblasts), accelerate connective tissue repair and act to decrease inflammation. Although the skin is the organ that is naturally exposed to light more than any other organ, it still responds well to laser and infrared wavelengths.
Similar to the photosynthesis of plants, the effects of LLLT are brought about by photochemical processes in the cells’ mitochondria. Low level laser light reduces oxidative stress in the tissue while increasing ATP synthesis.
The primary effects of the biological stimulation takes place at the cellular level. Here the monochromatic red and infrared beams are absorbed by components of the respiratory chain, which enhances the electrochemical potential of protons, ATP, RNA, and protein synthesis, oxygen consumption, the membrane potential, and the synthesis of NADH.