Most shin pain is the result of repetitive overuse [...]
Shin Splints is commonly referred a traction periostitis of the Tibia (Shin bone). Shin pain could be far worse problem like a Tibia Stress fracture. Shin pain can also be caused by an Anterior Compartment Syndrome.
The muscles in the in the limbs are contained within compartments comprised of connective tissue and bone. Increase in pressure within one of these, is known as compartment syndrome.